Zebu Blogs

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The Art Of Averaging

In the stock market, averaging is a group of trading strategies that use the basic principle of lowering or raising your share prices to deal with market changes. There are many different types of averaging strategies that a trader can use in different types of markets. For example, in an early bull market, the price of your stock can drop because of averaging. When strong fundamentals like an increase in PAT and steady revenue growth help, one can add to their stock holdings in small amounts. In a down market, on the other hand, an averaging strategy is used to lower one's risk of losing money, which makes the units bought more profitable. So, averaging is not just for losing trades. You can use this guide to learn about the different ways you can average your stocks out. Averaging involves executing a number of trades before you exhaust your capital. That is why you need the best online trading company that provides you with the best stock trading platform. We at Zebu find that it is our obligation to provide our traders with the best trading accounts so that they can average their investments with ease. Here are some of the different averaging strategies used by traders in the stock market. 1. Average down This is one of the most common ways to average. It is done by buying more shares after the price of the stock drops after the first one is bought. This means that the average cost of all the shares you own goes down. This also means that the breakeven point goes down, which makes it easier to make money. This is shown in the following example. Here is an example: Ramesh and Suresh think that ITC's stock price is going to rise. Assume that both of them have a capital of Rs 1 lakh and need to make a profit of Rs 5,000. Ramesh invests a lump sum of Rs 1,00,000 in ITC at 100 (1000 shares). For him to make a profit of Rs 1,500, ITC needs to move up to 105. Suresh, on the other hand, expects some volatility in the stock for the short term. So he invests Rs 50,000 at 100 (500 shares), Rs 25,000 at 98 (255 shares) and Rs 25,000 at 96 (260 shares). HE has averaged down and holds 1015 shares at an average of 98.47. For Suresh to make a profit of Rs 1,500, ITC's share price needs to move just to Rs 103.44. In this scenario, Suresh has clearly made a better decision since he divided his capital to buy the shares at lower prices. In other words, he has averaged his cost for a better risk-reward ratio. 2. Average up A lot of people use the strategy of averaging up when the market is going up, which is called a "bull market." Traders use this strategy if they know that the original trend of the stock is still going strong and has a lot of room for growth. Ramesh, who thinks ITC stock is going to rise, buys 100 shares at 1,660. In the next few days, let's say that the price of ITC stock rises from this point. Now that he's sure he's right, Ramesh buys 100 shares each at a price of 1960 and 2250. As Ramesh thought the stock would go up at these prices, he took his total transaction cost to 5,87,000. If you want to buy 300 shares of XYZ, this is how you can improve your conviction. Suresh had the same bullish expectation and didn't average up his position and was left with his initial 100 shares instead. At the end of ITC's bull run, Ramesh will be left with more profits than Suresh. Another important averaging technique is the Pyramid strategy. Traders average by breaking down their position size by investing a larger sum at the first price and keep reducing their quantity of shares as the price moves as per their expectations. However, it is a very risky strategy reserved only for experienced traders. For the sake of capital protection, we will not be getting into a detailed explanation of the strategy. To sum up, averaging is a common way to trade in the stock market. It means scaling up or down on the price of a share to handle the volatility of the market. Since it can become complex if it is not executed properly, you need the best trading accounts to average your trades and investments. As a leading online trading company, we provide you with the best stock trading platform to average effortlessly.

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Financial Independence, Retire Early (FIRE): What Is It?

Financial Independence, Retire Early (FIRE) is a movement of individuals committed to extreme savings and investing strategy that enables them to retire significantly sooner than typical budgets and retirement plans allow. FIRE was born out of Vicki Robin and Joe Dominguez's 1992 best-selling book Your Money or Your Life. It came to reflect the book's central premise: People should analyse every expense in terms of the number of work hours required to pay for it. The FIRE retirement movement is a direct challenge to the traditional retirement age of 65 and the business that has developed to encourage people to plan for it. By allocating the majority of their income to savings, members of the FIRE movement aspire to be able to retire decades before they reach 65 and live entirely off tiny withdrawals from their holdings. The concept of FIRE is extremely popular with millennials and there is no reason that Gen Z Indians will not follow suit. Followers of FIRE work for several years and save up to 70% of their annual salary. When their savings accumulate to approximately 30 times their annual expenses, or approximately $1 million, they may decide to quit their jobs or retire entirely. At Zebu, we understand that traders and investors with very high aspirations need nothing short of the best Indian trading platform with its plethora of features and scanners. As one of the top brokers in share market in India, we have the privilege of providing our users with their best trading accounts. To fund their living expenses after early retirement, FIRE enthusiasts make small annual withdrawals from their investments, often between 3% and 4% of the sum. Depending on the size of their funds and desired lifestyle, this may require extraordinary care in monitoring costs as well as a commitment to investment upkeep and reallocation. Types of FIRE Fat FIRE—This option is for the conventional worker who wishes to save significantly more than the average worker but does not wish to sacrifice their existing way of living. It is often not feasible without a high salary and active savings and investing plans. Lean FIRE—This involves a strong dedication to minimalism and extreme savings, necessitating a significantly more restricted lifestyle. Numerous Lean FIRE devotees live on less than $25,000 per year. Barista FIRE—This is for those who choose to reside in the grey area between the two options above. They abandoned their typical 9-to-5 occupations but maintain a less-than-minimalist existence through a combination of part-time work and savings. The former enables individuals to receive health insurance, while the latter stops them from withdrawing assets from their retirement accounts. Who Is FIRE Really For? The majority of people believe that FIRE is only for people who have a big salary, typically in the six figures. Indeed, if your goal is to retire in your 30s or 40s, this is almost certainly true. However, there is much for everyone to learn from the movement's ideals, which can help individuals save for retirement and even attain an early retirement, albeit not quite as early as 40. And keep in mind that the first part of FIRE stands for financial independence, which, if attained, enables you to work at something you enjoy rather than something you have to do. According to author Robin, FIRE is about more than early retirement; it teaches you how to consume less while living better. Meticulous planning The FIRE movement emphasises the necessity of developing a clear strategy and sticking to it, which are principles that will assist anyone in saving for retirement and building a sizable emergency fund. Economic self-control To attain a FIRE retirement, you must maximise your income while keeping your spending to a minimum. While retiring by 40 requires extreme measures, everyone can benefit from creating and adhering to a budget while working as hard as possible to earn as much money as possible, whether through a better job, adding a second one, or creating additional revenue streams through side hustles or rental property ownership. A prudent investment Nobody can retire comfortably if they do not invest in their retirement funds. FIRE devotees invest a greater percentage of their income than the ordinary person would. However, the notion of setting aside a fixed proportion of your salary each month for investment — and beginning as soon as possible — will enable you to grow your retirement savings to a level that will ensure your financial stability in your later years. According to Robin's comments, the book's purpose is not to impart a master plan for early retirement; rather, it is to demonstrate how to live better while spending less in order to live a more fulfilling life while consuming less of the world's resources. If you are a FIRE enthusiast, we would love to support your goals with the best trading accounts from Zebu. As one of the top brokers in share market, we have created the best Indian trading platform for waiting for you to take charge of your financial future. To know more about our products and services, please get in touch with us now.

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Fundamental Analysis 101 - 5 Things To Get You Started

Fundamental analysis is about getting to know a company, its business, and its future plans better. It includes reading and analysing annual reports and financial statements to get a sense of the company's strengths and weaknesses, as well as its competitors. Before you get started on your journey of investments, we believe that you deserve one of the best trading accounts from one of the top brokers in share market. With Zebu, you get access to a state-of-the-art online trading platform with which you can perform comprehensive fundamental and technical analysis. A few of the important parameters while doing fundamental analysis are: 1. Net Profit Net profit can mean different things to different people. Net means "after all the deductions." It's common to think of net profit as profit after all the operating costs have been taken out, especially the fixed costs or overheads. Gross profit gives investors the difference between sales and direct costs of goods sold before operating costs or overheads are taken into account. This is not the case here. It is also called Profit After Tax (PAT), which is the profit figure that is left after taxes are taken out of the profit. 2. Profit Margins The earnings of a company don't tell the entire story. Earning more money is good, but if the cost goes up more than the revenue, the profit margin doesn't get better. The profit margin shows how much money the company makes from each rupee of sales. This measure is very useful when you want to compare businesses in the same industry. On the basis of a simple formula: Net income / Revenue = Profit margin In this case, a higher profit margin means that the company is better able to control its costs than its competitors are. The profit margin is shown in percentages. If a company makes 10 paise for every rupee they make, then the profit margin is 10%. This means that the company makes 10 paise for every rupee they make. 3. Return on Equity Ratio Return on Equity (ROE) shows how well a company does at making money. It is a ratio of revenue and profits to the value of the company's stock. Find out how much profit a company can make with the money its shareholders have put into it. A simple way to do this is to look at the return on equity ratio, The Return on Equity Ratio is calculated as shown. Return on equity = Net Income / Shareholder’s Equity It is calculated in rupees. This factor is important because it tells you about a lot of other things, like leverage (debt of the company), revenue, profits and margins, returns to shareholders. For example, a company called XYZ Ltd. made a net profit (before dividends) of Rs. 1,00,000. During the year, it paid out dividends of Rs. 10,000. XYZ Ltd. also had 500, Rs.50 par common shares on the market during the year, as well. That's how the ROE would be calculated then. ROE = 1,00,000–10,000/500*50 = Rs. 3.6. Simply put, those who own shares in the company will get back Rs. 3.6 for every rupee they invest in the company. 4. Price to Earnings (P/E) Ratio People often use the Price-to-Earnings (P/E) ratio to figure out how much a share of a company is worth. It tells us how much money the company makes per share in the market today. We can figure out the Price of earnings, or PE ratio, as shown below. In simple terms, PE = Price per Share / Earnings per Share This also helps when you want to compare businesses. Then companies should figure out their EPS and then figure out how much their PE ratio value is. A high P/E means that the stock is priced high compared to its earnings. Companies with higher P/E seem to be more expensive. However, this measure, as well as other financial ratios, must be compared to other companies in the same industry or to the company's own P/E history to be useful. If company XYZ has a share that costs 50 rupees, and its earnings per share for the year are 10 rupees per share. The P/E Ratio is 50/10, which is 5. 5. Price-to-Book (P/B) Ratio A Price-to-Book (P/B) ratio is used to compare a stock's value on the market to its value on the books. Calculating the P/B ratio is the way to figure out if you're paying too much for the stock because it shows how much money the company would have leftover if it were to close down today. P/BV Ratio = Current Market Price per Share / Book Value per Share Book Value per Share = Book Value / Total number of shares Having a higher P/B ratio than 1 means that the share price is higher than what the company's assets would be sold for, which means that the share price is higher. The difference shows what investors think about the future growth of the company. XYZ company, for example, has 10,000 shares trading at Rs.10 each. This year, the company recorded a net value of Rs. 50,000 on its balance sheet. The price-to-book ratio of the corporation would be as follows: 50,000 / 10,000 = Book Value per Share P/BV Ratio = 10 / 5 P/BV Ratio = 2 The company's market price is two times its book value. This signifies that the company's stock is worth twice as much as the balance sheet's net worth. Also, because investors are ready to pay more for the business's shares than they are worth, this company would be called overvalued. Zebu is the house of the best online trading platform in the country - as one of the top brokers in share market, we have provided the best trading accounts for our users. Think of the most complex analysis that you need to do and Zebull Smart Trader from Zebu will make it possible for you. If you would like to know more, please get in touch with us now.

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A Post Retirement Income Plan

Until a few years ago, almost no one was interested in annuities as a source of post-retirement income. In the last three or four years, members of the NPS have been interested in the concept of annuities and how they may be used to create income. Unfortunately, annuities, at least those offered in India, are prohibitively expensive, inefficient, and incapable of mitigating inflation, which is, after all, the greatest long-term threat to anyone's retirement income. As a result, retirees should consider alternative sources of income (whether fixed income or equity-based). Indeed, even the Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA), which now requires that 40% of a retiree's money accumulated in the National Pension System (NPS) be used to purchase an annuity, is considering adding a non-annuity withdrawal plan in its place. PFRDA recognises that annuity should not be the only option and may not even be the most appropriate one. Before you get started on your post-retirement plan, you need the best stock trading platform with the lowest brokerages to realise maximum profits from your investments. As one of the fastest growing and best brokerage firms in the country, we have created a suite of products to help you analyse stocks and make an informed decision. Developing a post-retirement income plan begins with an evaluation of your monthly income requirement and available money to determine if there is a meeting ground. Clearly, in the early years, there is little that can be done to alter this equation. As a general guideline, an initial withdrawal rate of no more than 6% is optimal. Anything more tends to increase the risk of capital depletion. Indeed, the lesser the withdrawal, the better. Keeping a close eye on spending, in the beginning, will pay dividends afterwards. If you can make do with less, that would be ideal. Increasing the withdrawal ratio exposes you to significant risk down the road because when you are attempting to develop a long-term withdrawal strategy from your investment, you must be prudent enough not to deplete your cash. Of course, there are times when a retiree may experience market misfortune. Interest rates may also tend to drop over extended periods of time in fixed income. You must choose an asset allocation strategy based on all of these considerations. Almost certainly, you will realise that an all-fixed-income strategy is insufficient. To sustain a rising inflation-beating income, a fixed income plan must accept a withdrawal rate that cannot exceed 4% and should preferably be lower. To put the concept into perspective, a withdrawal plan permits you to withdraw a significant portion of your income while leaving a tiny portion of your growth. Assume you have Rs 1000 and it increases by 8%. By deducting 6%, you retain a small portion of the appreciation to support a bigger income the next year. However, if you consume it all, your capital will remain constant, which is undesirable given that you will almost certainly require a higher income during the next 25 years. Given the reality of inflation and increased medical costs in old life, there is very little chance you will require less money in ten years. As a result, you must leave a portion of your growth and not consume it entirely. Not only that, the less money you borrow today, the more secure you will be later. As a result, you'll need to consider a conservative allocation, perhaps 15% to 35% in equity, depending on the size of your investment. If your capital is restricted, you might have to undertake more risk in equity. If you have more than sufficient capital, you can afford to have a lower equity allocation. The optimal strategy is to take away at most (ideally less than) 80% of the appreciation in the current year and then leave 20% there. This way, you'll have some room for capital growth, which is how you'll need to adjust it. This way, your income will rise faster in good times, but you will not deplete your capital in poor times, and it will remain fair. This level of discipline will provide a financially secure retirement. Whether you are starting your investment journey at retirement or are looking for a reliable trading and investment platform to grow your capital, then Zebu is the answer for you. As one of the best brokerage firms in the country, we have created Zebull, our best stock trading platform. We charge the lowest brokerage for derivative trading and will help you realise your financial goals. To know more about our products and services, please get in touch with us now.

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Questions To Ask Before You Invest In A Stock

Investing by yourself for the first few times can become very intimidating, very quick. But considering that taking charge of your finances is the way for independence, it is importantto invest wisely and take risks as per your comfort level. Before you invest in a company, you need to understand the fundamentals of a business. If you invest without doing your homework, you are simply gambling. We would also suggest that you ignore WhatsApp recommendations, YouTube recommendations or any other opinion you do not trust. Another important factor to consider is the platform you use to analyse stocks and start investing. We suggest that you trust one of the best brokerage firms in the country like Zebu. As a top broker in the share market , we have created one of the best stock trading platforms, for you to use and invest. So, before you acquire a share in which you want to invest, here are a few questions to ask. Remember, this isn't research - it's pre-research. These questions are vital and fundamental - far from complete, but a good place to start! What is the company's line of business? What does the company do? You should have a circle of competency if Warren Buffett does. Indigo Airlines is a carrier, Asian Paints is a paint manufacturer, and HDFC Bank is a bank. Well, none of the stuff is really simple to comprehend, but it is simple to express. Do not purchase if you do not understand what a BPCL or a Bajaj Finance is. If you have to buy something, you should know what it does. Before you buy a stock, the first step is to understand what the company does. Is the company paying a dividend or, at the very least, paying income tax? A retail investor should avoid investing in companies that are yet to generate a profit. Allow venture capitalists to invest in turnaround companies; it is a distinct kind of skill that you, as a beginner, might not have. The company will pay dividends shortly if it is profitable and paying income taxes, so you may relax. To be even safer, only invest in firms that offer dividends. At the very least, you know that the cash flows you witness are real. What has been the company's track record? Take a look at the last two years. Examine the quarterly reports, as well as the balance sheet and director's reports over the previous three years. Check to see if the company could glimpse into the future and foresee what will happen. Take a look at what they said and did. See if you can determine whether the company's success was due to luck or strategy. It won't be easy but you can start with the basics of fundamental analysis to understand a few of the company’s numbers. What is the Price Earnings that it is quoting? A PE of 24 or above is considered excessive. Of course, some companies with a lower PE are accessible, and they may also be growing slowly. So, instead of 24, search for a pe that is about 17. Remember that the market might stay at a new high PE for a long time, leading you to believe that "this is the new normal" — using PE is a double-edged sword, but it's a good place to start. What are the rivals' names and prices? If you're looking for Asian Paints, you'll also come across Berger Paints. Coming away thinking "these are two fantastic companies" will be challenging, if not impossible. So, if you notice that the entire industry has a high PE, you might want to reconsider your position on the industry and its valuation. Is this company the market leader in its industry? Is it a niche player in a crowded market? Is it a monopolistic sector dominated by a single corporation, or is it a fragmented industry where even the largest player controls less than 10% of the market, like D'Mart and other supermarkets do? Also, keep an eye on the competitors from other countries. Who is in charge of the business? You could favour family-owned businesses with competent management and strong family values, such as Cholamandalam and Asian Paints. That isn't to suggest that ITC isn't a successful company. Or that Equitas will be poorly administered by a group of pals who have known each other for many years! What is the dividend policy? If you acquire a PSU share, the government could go after the company for a large payout. As a result, you benefit as well. However, some businesses may elect to preserve a large part for future usage, so be cautious. Have you noticed any red signs recently? Is a director being charged for failing to pay taxes? any other criminal or social blunders/frauds? In these cases, keep your distance. There are 9000 businesses on the stock exchange. Approximately 5000 of them are occasionally spotted. Around 200 have reliable financial statements. Your investment needs could be more than met with these 200 companies. We would also suggest choosing from the top 100 stocks on the NSE or the top 200 stocks on the BSE. With these questions as the basis for your investment decisions, the next step is to understand the basics of fundamental analysis. At Zebu, we are working on a short and cript fundamental analysis guide that can help you understand a company. As a top broker in the share market, we have created the best stock trading platform for you to invest wisely. Our tool is designed to help investors and traders analyse a company with a wide range of indicators and screeners as per your strategy. As one of the best brokerage firms in the country, we invite you to open a trading and investment account with us.

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Key Takeaways From Budget 2022

From Rs 5.54 lakh crore to Rs 7.50 lakh crore, the target for capital expenditure (capex) grew by 35.4%. The FM said that India's GDP growth in FY23 is the highest of all major economies, and we are now in a strong position to deal with any challenges that come our way. According to her, the goal is to complement macro-growth with micro-all-inclusive welfare, digital economy and fintech, tech-enabled development, energy transition, and climate action. She also mentioned that ECLGS cover has grown by Rs 50,000 to Rs 5 lakh crore. In this year's budget, the top priorities are: PM Gati Shakti; inclusive development; productivity enhancement; sunrise opportunities; energy transition; climate action; She added that productivity-linked incentive schemes in 14 sectors have been very well-received. Investment intentions worth Rs 30 lakh crore have been made. Economic growth is getting a boost from public investment and capital spending. Taxes Income from digital assets is to be taxed at 30% and except for the cost of buying a digital asset, no other deductions will be made. The loss from transactions of digital assets cannot be set off from any other income. Digital asset gifts like cryptocurrency gifts will be taxed at the receiver's end. If taxpayers have made an error while filing their returns, they can not file an updated return within two years from the year of assessment. The alternate minimum tax for cooperative societies has been cut down to 15% with surcharges being reduced to 7% for those with incomes between INR 1 crore to INR 10 crores. Tax deduction on employers contribution to NPS has been increased to 14%. Jobs ECLGS has been extended till March 2023 and the Government hopes to add 60 lakh jobs in the next 5 years. A digital ecosystem for skilling and making money will be launched soon. This will help people learn new skills, re-skill, and up-skill through online training. API-based skill credentials, payment layers, and other tools will help people find jobs and opportunities. Infrastructure National highways will be expanded by 25,000 kms in the upcoming financial year. The Desh stack e-portal will be launched to promote digital infrastructure. Air India's strategic ownership transfer has been completed. Four multi-modal national parks will be built in the next two years. One product, one railway station will be promoted with 400 new Vande Bharat trains being introduced. There will be a PM Gatishakti master plan for expressways next year. There will be 100 PM Gati Shakti terminals built in the next three years. Over the medium term, the government will invest in infrastructure and use the Gati Shakti tech platform to modernise it. This will help the economy move forward, and it will lead to more jobs and opportunities for the youth. Housing And Urban Planning In 2022-23, 80 million houses will be finished for PM Awas Yojana beneficiaries; 60,000 homes in rural and urban areas will be chosen as beneficiaries of the PM Awas Yojana. 60,000 crore has been set aside to make sure that 3.8 million households had access to tap water. A high-level committee of urban planners and economists will be set up to make recommendations on urban city building. Five of the existing academic institutions for urban planning are to be declared as Centre for Excellence with an endowment fund of INR 250 crores. New modern building by-laws are to be introduced. The government is also going to push for public transport usage in urban areas. MSMEs and Startups A five-year, Rs 6,000-crore scheme to rate MSMEs will be implemented. The reach of MSMEs such as Udyam, e-shram, NCS, and Aseem portals would be widened and they'll now act as portals with live organic databases, offering G-C, B-C, and B-B services including credit facilitation and expanding entrepreneurial opportunities. A fund with blended capital has been raised under NABARD's co-investment approach to finance agriculture and rural enterprise startups for the farm product value chain An expert group will be formed to recommend steps to help attract investment after PE/VC invested Rs 5.5 lakh crore in a startup. Agriculture The government would spend Rs 2.37 lakh crore on wheat and paddy procurement under the MSP programme The International Year of Millets has been declared for 2022-23 Small farmers and MSMEs will benefit from new rail products. To reduce imports, a more rationalised plan to boost domestic oilseed production will be implemented. Kisan Drones will be used for crop assessment, land records, and insecticide spraying and are expected to drive a wave of technology in the agricultural sector. INR 44,605 crores have been allocated for the linking of Ken Betwa river. Five river linkages have had their draught DPRs has also been finalised. Along the Ganga river corridor, natural farming will be promoted. Ministries for procurement will create an entirely paperless, e-billing system and farmers will be given financial assistance to start agroforestry operations. Electric Vehicles A battery swapping policy will be developed to allow EV charging stations for automobiles. The private sector will be encouraged to develop sustainable and innovative business models for battery and energy as a service, thereby improving EV ecosystem efficiency. Education States will be encouraged to revise agricultural university curricula to meet the needs of natural, zero-budget, and organic farming, as well as modern-day agriculture. The PM eVIDYA's 'one class, one TV channel' programme will be expanded from 12 to 200 TV channels, allowing all states to provide supplementary education in regional languages for classes 1 to 12. A digital university will be established to provide education; it will be built on a hub-and-spoke model. A 1-Class-1-TV Channel will be implemented to provide supplementary education to children in order to compensate for the loss of formal education due to Covid. Finance and inclusion Rs 1 lakh crore in financial assistance will be provided to states to catalyse investments in 2022-23. RBI proposes to introduce Digital Rupee using blockchain technology in 2022-23. The core banking system will be implemented in all 1.5 lakh post offices, enabling financial inclusion and account access via net banking, mobile banking, and ATMs, as well as providing online transfer of funds between post office accounts and bank accounts. This will be especially beneficial to farmers and senior citizens in rural areas, allowing for interoperability and financial inclusion. Amendments to the IBC to improve the efficiency of the resolution process. The government will also facilitate the resolution of cross-border insolvencies and expedite the voluntary closure of businesses. To encourage digital payments, scheduled commercial banks will establish 75 digital banks in 75 districts. An international arbitration centre will be established to facilitate faster dispute resolution. According to FM, a world-class university will be permitted in the GIFT IFSC, free of domestic regulation. Healthcare An open platform for the national digital health ecosystem will be launched, which will include digital registries of health providers and facilities, a unique health identity, and universal access to health facilities. A National Tele Mental Health Program will be launched to provide mental health counselling. Telecom A spectrum auction will be held in 2022 to prepare for the 5G rollout. A design-led manufacturing scheme will be launched as part of the PLI scheme to enable affordable broadband and mobile communication in rural and remote areas. A portion of the USO Fund will be used for R&D and technology advancement and contracts for laying optical fibre in villages will be awarded under the BharatNet PPP project in 2022-23. A data centre and an energy storage system will also be designated as infrastructure, allowing for easy financing. Women and Children Recognizing the significance of 'Nari Shakti,' three schemes will be launched to provide integrated development for women and children, including the upgrade of 2 lakh Anganwadis to improve child health. Ease of Businesses 75,000 compliances have been eliminated, and 1,486 union laws have been repealed to make doing business easier. Corporate voluntary exit will be reduced from two years to six months. Defence The government has committed to reducing imports and promoting self-reliance in the defence sector; 68% of capital for the defence sector will be earmarked for local industry and 25% of the defence R&D budget will be made available to industry, startups, and academia. Through the SPV model, private companies will be encouraged to design and develop military platforms and equipment in collaboration with DRDO and other organisations. In 2022-23, the domestic industry will receive 68 per cent of the defence capital procurement budget (up from the 58 per cent last fiscal). Railways 400 new-generation Vande Bharat trains will be manufactured over the next three years, and a 2,000-kilometer rail network will be brought under KAWACH for safety and capacity augmentation. Climate Change and Net Zero Energy Sovereign green bonds will be included in the government's borrowing programme in this fiscal year and the proceeds will be used for public-sector projects Four coal gasification pilot projects will be established and PLI will receive an additional allocation of Rs 19,500 crore for the production of high-efficiency solar modules. Travel E-Passports with embedded chips will be issued in 2022-23 for ease of overseas travel.

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The Quick Guide To Index Funds

An index fund, also known as an index-tied or index-tracked fund, is a mutual fund that mimics an index's portfolio.

What is an Index Fund

Investors think of index funds as an instrument to diversify their portfolio - they simply give the same returns that you might get if indices were purchasable. Since popular indices are not susceptible to rapid movements, index funds are a safe bet for risk-averse investors.They simply ensure a performance that is theoretically similar to the index movements. Because index funds are not actively managed, they are less expensive. They will not outperform an index but simply replicate its movements. They help investors diversify and balance the risk in their portfolio.

How Do They Work?

If you consider an index fund that mirror’s Nifty 50, it will contain the same stocks as the index and with the same weightage. Index funds are called as passive fund management because they simply monitor the movement of an index. Based on the composition of the underlying index, a fund manager divides your funds with the right weightage for certain stocks. Index funds, unlike actively managed funds, do not have their own team of research experts to find opportunities and pick stocks. While an actively managed fund aims to outperform its benchmark, an index fund's goal is to mirror its index's performance. Index funds usually produce returns that are similar to the benchmark. However, there will be a marginal difference between the returns of both. This is the tracking error and it is the fund manager's job to reduce this error as much as possible.

Who Should Put Their Money in Index Funds?

As with any investment, you need to first understand your risk tolerance and investment objectives. Index funds are for those who do not want high risk but are also realistic about lower returns. If you do not have a lot of time to monitor the stock markets every year, then this one is for you. You can choose a highly liquid Sensex or Nifty index fund if you want to invest in stocks but don't want to accept the risks associated with actively managed equity funds. While index funds will give you returns that are comparable to an index’s movements, you need to opt for more actively managed funds if you want to outperform the market.

What to Consider as an Investor

As with any investment, one of the first things to consider is the platform that you are going to buy these funds on. With Zebu’s lowest brokerage fees, and our credibility as one of India’s best share market brokers, we guarantee that you will have access to the best trading accounts in the country. Risk Index funds are less susceptible to equity-related volatility and dangers because they track an index. If you want to make a lot of money in a bull market, index funds are a great place to start. During a market downturn, though, you'll have to switch to actively managed funds. Because during bear markets, index funds tend to lose value. As a result, having a mix of actively managed funds and index funds in your portfolio is recommended. Return As we have mentioned before, the returns from index funds will be very similar to index benchmarks as it simply replicates its moves. These funds aren't trying to outperform the benchmark, but rather to copy it. However, due to tracking issues, the results generated may not be on par with the index. There may be differences in actual index returns. As a result, before investing in an index fund, it is recommended to select funds with the lowest tracking error. The smaller the errors, the better the fund's performance. Investment cost Since index funds are passively managed, their expense ratios are much lower than that of actively managed mutual funds. This is because there is no investment strategy from a fund manager - they simply monitor the weightage of stocks in an index and manage that in an index fund. As a result, the expense ratio differs. Any two index funds that track the Nifty will produce similar returns. The expense ratio will be the only change. Because the fund has a reduced expense ratio, it will yield larger returns on investment. Time frame Individuals with a long-term investment horizon will generally benefit from index funds. Typically, the fund sees a lot of volatility in the short run, but over time, say more than seven years, it averages out to generate returns in the 10% -12% level. Those who invest in index funds must have the patience to wait at least that long. Only then will they be able to appreciate its returns. Goals Long-term financial goals, such as wealth accumulation or retirement planning, may be best achieved using equity funds. These funds are high-risk, high-return sanctuary and can help you build wealth and possibly retire early. Therefore, if your objective is to earn more than the index benchmark, then index funds might not be the one for you.

Taxation

Because index funds are a type of equity fund, they are taxed similarly to other equity fund plans. An index fund's dividends are added to your overall income and taxed at your marginal tax rate. Index funds are taxed at different rates depending on how long they are held. Short-term capital gains are realised when you redeem your units during a one-year holding period. These profits are taxed at a 15 per cent flat rate. Long-term capital gains are gains realised when you sell your fund units after a one-year holding period. However, if your gains are under Rs 1,00,000 per year, they are tax-free. Any gains in excess of this amount are subject to a 10% tax rate, with no indexation. If you choose to go for an index fund, there are several options for you to choose from. A few of them include ICICI prudential NV20 ETF, UTI Sensex ETF and SBI ETF Nifty Next 50. You can explore these options and more with Zebu. Our lowest brokerage fees allow you to purchase the index fund of your choice effortlessly, making yours one of the best trading accounts. As one of India’s leading share market brokers, we will help you make the right decision when it comes to index funds.

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The Best Books to Read On Personal Finance

Personal finance books can help you get started with money management more effectively. At the most fundamental level, you can learn personal finance fundamentals, such as why paying yourself first pays off or how to manage and pay off debt, to become smarter and more confident with your money. However, it does not end there. They can also teach you how to invest, manage a mortgage, build a nest egg, save for retirement, and ultimately assist you in avoiding common money pitfalls in order to foster a healthy relationship with your money. It's not easy reading, but your wallet and future self will thank you. Before we begin… When you take full responsibility for your financial future, it helps to be supported by one of the top brokers in share market. Zebu is one of the fastest-growing platforms in the country for trading and investing and we have a team that would love to help you out with your financial objectives. We have Zebull, the best online trading platform with a host of features, and one of the lowest brokerage fees for intraday trading. Here are our recommendations for the best personal finance books. Why Didn’t They Teach Me This in School? If you ask anyone what they wish they had learned more about in school, the answer is almost certainly money. More specifically, how to properly manage one's finances—hence the title of Cary Siegel's book, "Why Didn't They Teach Me This in School?" Siegel, a retired business executive, divides the book into 99 principles and eight financial lessons that you should have learned by high school or college but didn't. When he realised his five children weren't learning important personal finance principles before entering the real world, he wrote this book for them, but it grew into a well-reviewed read full of important financial lessons with Siegel’s first hand experiences as well. This simple book is ideal for recent graduates or anyone looking to begin their personal finance journey on the right foot. Rich Dad Poor Dad You've probably heard of Robert Kiyosaki's book "Rich Dad, Poor Dad," but there's a reason it's been around for over two decades. Kiyosaki shares what he learned growing up from his father and a friend's father, the latter of whom is referred to as the "rich dad" in the title, in one of the most popular personal finance books of all time. These lessons cover topics such as how you don't need a lot of money to get rich, assets and liabilities, and why schools won't teach your children what they need to know about personal finance. This 20th anniversary edition includes an author update on money, the economy, and investing. The Total Money Makeover Debt management is critical to the health of your personal finances. Do you require assistance in this area? Examine Dave Ramsey's "The Total Money Makeover." This New York Times bestseller explains, without equivocation, how to get out of debt and improve your financial situation by avoiding common pitfalls such as rent-to-own, cash advances, and credit. It also provides sound advice on how to start an emergency fund, save for college and retirement, and use Ramsey's famous "Snowball Method" to pay off debt. The Automatic Millionaire Who wouldn't like to be a millionaire? The New York Times, USA Today, Bloomberg Businessweek, and Wall Street Journal business bestseller "The Automatic Millionaire" by David Bach teaches you how to do just that. The book begins with the storey of a couple who earns a combined $55,000 per year and how they achieved their financial goals. Consider this: owning two homes, paying for their children's college, and retiring at 55 with a $1 million retirement nest egg. What is the secret? Creating a financial system that not only pays yourself first, but also does so automatically. Broke Millennial This is the personal finance book for you if you can decipher #GYFLT. (Hint: in social media speak, #GYFLT stands for "get your financial life together.") In her signature conversational style, Erin Lowry's "Broke Millennial" explains how 20-somethings can take control of their personal finances. This book covers the most pressing financial issues confronting millennials today, from understanding your relationship with money to managing student loans to sharing financial details with a partner. The One-Page Financial Plan Confused about your money, whether it's how to invest properly or how to deal with unexpected financial challenges? "The One-Page Financial Plan" by Carl Richards removes the mystery of effectively managing your finances. This book not only helps you figure out what your financial goals are but also shows you how to get there in a simple, one-page plan. The author is a Certified Financial Planner as well as a New York Times columnist. I Will Teach You to Be Rich Financial expert Ramit Sethi explains in "I Will Teach You to Be Rich," a New York Times and Wall Street Journal best-seller, that you can spend your money guilt-free as long as it is invested and allocated properly. This title discusses how to avoid common financial pitfalls, such as paying off student loans, saving money on a monthly basis, and even negotiating your way out of late fees. This tenth-anniversary edition includes new perspectives on technology, money, and psychology, as well as success stories from readers who have made a fortune after reading—you guessed it—book. Sethi's Clever Girl Finance According to the US Department of Labor, women still earn $0.82 for every dollar earned by men, while mothers earn $0.71 for every dollar earned by fathers. In short, when it comes to money, women still have to work harder. Bola Sokunbi's "Clever Girl Finance" aims to empower and educate a new generation of women on topics such as budgeting, creating and sticking to a budget, managing credit, saving for retirement, and taking responsibility for your own financial well-being. The Psychology of Money This book is an intriguing look at the psychology of money and how your ego, preconceived notions, and even your pride can influence your financial decisions. As you might expect, this isn't the best way to manage your investment portfolio, and Morgan Housel's "The Psychology of Money" provides readers with tips and tools for combating these biases in the form of 19 short stories that all focus on the same topic. Housel is a partner at The Collaborative Fund and a former Wall Street Journal columnist. Your Money or Your Life Vicki Robin's book has sold over a million copies details a nine-step plan to help readers change their relationship with money. This book will teach you how to get out of debt, start investing, build wealth, and even save money by using Robin's signature mindfulness technique. Accounting Books You Should Read The Final Word Whether you're new to finances or simply want more financial advice, "Why Didn't They Teach Me This In School?" by Cary Siegel is the best overall personal finance book (view at Amazon). It teaches eight important money lessons that you should have learned by high school, as well as a whopping 99 principles for saving, investing, and building wealth. While you take charge of your personal finances, we at Zebu, one of the top brokers in share market, are here to assist you with everything. From helping you understand different asset classes and how you can benefit from them, Zebu supports you with Zebull, a superb online trading platform and the lowest brokerage for intraday trading. Please get in touch with us to know more about our products and services.

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Let’s Make Sense Of Option Greeks - Part 2

In the last article, we got to understand the basics of what moves an option’s premium. There are several factors like implied volatility, moneyness and time to decay that affect its price. In this article, we take a detailed look at each of the options Greeks and how they work. Before we begin… As we have mentioned in part 1, Zebu is fast emerging as the top broker in share market and provides the lowest brokerage for intraday trading. As an options trader, we will complement your strategies with Zebull, the best Indian trading platform. It comes with a variety of features that will help you analyse option greeks effortlessly. For every 1 Re change in the price of the underlying securities or index, Delta estimates how much an option's price can be expected to vary. A Delta of 0.40, for example, suggests that the option's price will move 40 paisa for every 1 Re movement in the price of the underlying stock or index. As you may expect, the higher the Delta, the greater the price variation. Traders frequently utilise Delta to determine whether an option will expire in the money. A Delta of 0.40 is taken to signify that the option has a 40% chance of being ITM at expiration at that point in time. This isn't to say that higher-Delta options aren't profitable. After all, you might not make any money if you paid a high premium for an option that expires ITM. Delta can alternatively be thought of as the number of shares of the underlying stock that the option mimics. A Delta of 0.40 indicates that if the underlying stock moves 1 Re, the option will likely gain or lose the same amount as 40 shares of the stock. Call Options The positive Delta of call options can range from 0.00 to 1.00. The Delta of at-the-money options is usually around 0.50. As the option’s price goes deeper into the money, the Delta will rise till it eventually reaches 1. As expiration approaches, the Delta of ITM call options will approach 1.00. As expiration approaches, the Delta of out-of-the-money call options will almost go down to 0.00. Put Options The negative Delta of put options can range from 0.00 to –1.00. The Delta of at-the-money options is usually around –0.50. As the option goes deeper ITM, the Delta will fall (and approach –1.00). As expiration approaches, the Delta of ITM put options will reach –1.00. As expiration approaches, the Delta of out-of-the-money put options will almost go down to 0.00. Gamma Gamma represents the rate of change in an option's Delta over time, whereas Delta is a snapshot in time. You can think of Delta as speed and Gamma as acceleration if you remember your high school physics lesson. Gamma is the rate of change in an option's Delta per 1 Re change in the underlying stock price in practice. We imagined a Delta of.40 choice in the previous case. The option's Delta is no longer 0.40 if the underlying stock moves 1 Re and the option moves 40 paise with it. Why? The call option is now considerably deeper ITM, and its Delta should move even closer to 1.00 as a result of this 1 Re move. Assume that the Delta is now 0.55 as a result of this. The Gamma of the choice is 0.15, which is the difference in Delta from 0.40 to 0.55. Gamma falls when an option acquires further ITM and Delta approaches 1.00 since Delta can't reach 1.00. After all, when you near top speed, there's less room for acceleration. Theta If all other factors remain constant, theta informs you how much the price of an option should decline each day as it approaches expiration. Time decay is the term for this type of price depreciation over time. Time-value erosion is not linear, which means that as expiry approaches, the price erosion of at-the-money (ATM), just slightly out-of-the-money, and ITM options generally increases, whereas the price erosion of far out-of-the-money (OOTM) options generally drops. Vega Vega is the rate of change in an option's price per one percentage point change in the underlying stock's implied volatility. Vega is used to estimate how much the price of an option would vary with respect to the volatility of the underlying. More information on Vega: One of the most important elements impacting the value of options is volatility. Both calls and puts will likely lose value if Vega falls. A rise in Vega will normally raise the value of both calls and puts. If you ignore Vega, you may end up paying too much for your options. When all other conditions are equal, consider purchasing options when Vega is below "normal" levels and selling options when Vega is above "normal" levels when choosing a strategy for options trading. Analysing the implied volatility with respect to the historical volatility is one approach to analyse this. Implied volatility Despite the fact that implied volatility is not a Greek, it is still important. Implied volatility is a prediction of how volatile an underlying stock will be in the future, but it's only an estimate. While it is possible to predict a stock's future movements by looking at its historical volatility, among other things, the implied volatility reflected in an option's price is an inference based on a variety of other factors, including upcoming earnings reports, merger and acquisition rumours, pending product launches, and so on. These are the different option greeks that you need to use in conjunction with other bullish and bearish strategies and mathematical models that you might use to determine market moves. As the top broker in the share market, we have created Zebull. the best Indian trading platform with the lowest brokerage for intraday trading. With Zebull, you can easily analyse option Greeks and filter out stocks that work for you.

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Let’s Make Sense Of Option Greeks - Part 1

A lot of factors influence an option's pricing, which can benefit or hurt traders depending on their positions. The "Greeks" are a set of risk metrics named after the Greek letters that identify them, which reflect how sensitive an option is to time-value decay, changes in implied volatility, and movements in the price of its underlying security. Theta, vega, delta, and gamma are the four basic Greek risk measurements. Here's a closer look at each. Before we begin… Options trading can be extremely profitable if done with the right trading system and with discipline. However, you need to back up your strategy with the best Indian trading platform like Zebull from Zebu. We provide one of the lowest brokerages for intraday trading and are one of the top brokers in the share market right now. And we would love to help you with your options strategy execution. Why option Greeks For the uninitiated, options can be exercised, or converted into shares of the underlying asset, at a set price. Every option has an expiration date and a premium connected with it. One of the most popular option pricing models is Black-Scholes, which leads to price fluctuations. Greeks are frequently viewed alongside an option price model to properly assess risk. Volatility Volatility refers to how much an option's premium (or market value) changes before expiration. Financial, economic, and geopolitical risks can all create price changes. Implied volatility measures the market's expectation of price movement. Investors use implied volatility (or implied vol) to forecast future price movements in a securities or company. If implied volatility is predicted to rise, the premium on an option will likely rise as well. Profitability Several words describe a profitable or unprofitable option. The intrinsic value is the difference between the strike price and the price of the underlying stock or asset. At-the-money options have the same strike price as the underlying asset. An in-the-money option has a profit because the strike price is higher than the underlying price. In contrast, an out-of-the-money option has no profit when compared to the underlying's price. In the case of a call option, the underlying price is less than the strike price. A put option is OTM when the underlying price exceeds the strike price. Influences on an Option's Price Assuming other variables stay constant, an increase in implied volatility increases an option's price. Traders that are long or short will have different returns. If a trader is long a call option, increased implied volatility is beneficial since it increases the option premium. For traders holding short call options, an increase in implied volatility has the opposite (or negative) effect. A surge in volatility would not assist a naked option writer because they want the option's price to fall. Writers are option sellers. If a writer sells a call option, the buyer will exercise the option if the stock price rises above the strike. That is, if the stock price rose enough, the seller would have to sell shares to the option holder at the strike price. Sellers of options are compensated for the risk of their options being exercised against them. This is called shorting. A decrease in implied volatility, shorter expiration time, and a decline in the underlying security's price favour the short call holder. Increasing volatility, time left on the option, and underlying will benefit long call holders. Indicated volatility decreases, time till expiration increases, and the price of the underlying security rises for short put holders, whereas long puts profit from an increase in implied volatility, time until expiration increases, and the underlying security price decreases. During the life of most option deals, interest rates play a little influence. Its impact on an option's price is measured by rho, a lesser-known Greek. Generally, higher interest rates make call options more expensive and put options cheaper. All of this sets the stage for examining the risk categories used to assess these variables' relative impact. Remember that the Greeks help traders forecast price fluctuations. In this article, we have laid a foundation on what moves an option price. In the next article, let’s take a closer look at the different Greeks in an option. At Zebu, we strive to provide our customers with the lowest brokerage for intraday trading. Zebull is our proprietary trading platform that lets you analyse option greeks to perfection and is growing fast to become the best Indian trading platform. As one of the top brokers in share market, we believe that we have the right products and features to help you make the best trades. Please get in touch with us to know more.

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Here’s How Arbitrage Trading Works

Every day, thousands of traders and investors participate in the capital markets. All of the participants' primary goal is to make a profit. To trade in the stock market, you can use a variety of techniques and strategies. A trading strategy, on the other hand, becomes applicable only if the asset's price moves in a favourable direction. Arbitrage is a unique but simple method of profiting from the capital markets. Before we get into arbitrage trading… To do any form of trading, you need a reliable brokerage trading firm that gives you thebest stock trading platform that helps you analyse the right trading opportunities. Zebu gives you one of the best online trading platforms in the country with a fast-growing customer base. Please get in touch with us to know more. What exactly is arbitrage? To understand how arbitrage works, it is essential to first define arbitrage. Arbitrage is defined as the simultaneous purchase and sale of the same asset in different markets in order to profit from the price difference in both markets. While arbitrage opportunities can arise in any asset class that is traded in different markets in a standardised form, currency and stock markets are the most common. Arbitrage opportunities are frequently fleeting, lasting only seconds or minutes. Contrary to popular belief, markets are not completely efficient, creating arbitrage opportunities. As you may know, the price of an asset is determined by the supply and demand for it. A price difference arises as a result of a difference in supply and demand for an asset in different markets, which can be used for arbitrage trading. What is the process of arbitrage trading? As mentioned earlier, arbitrage trading is based on the trader's ability to capitalise on the price gap of the same asset in different markets. Because arbitrage opportunities are limited, most traders use algorithms to execute arbitrage trades. Let us look at a stock market example to see how arbitrage works. Assume XYZ is a stock that is traded on the National Stock Exchange and the New York Stock Exchange. On the NYSE, the price of XYZ is quoted in US dollars, while on the NSE, it is quoted in Indian rupees. On the NYSE, the share price of XYZ is $4. The share price on the NSE is Rs 238. If the USD/INR exchange rate is Rs 60, the NYSE share price of XYZ in INR will be Rs 240. If the USD is converted to INR, the same stock is quoted at Rs 238 on the NSE and Rs 240 on the NYSE. To take advantage of the arbitrage opportunity, a trader will purchase XYZ shares on the NSE at Rs 238 per share and sell the same number of shares on the NYSE for Rs 240, earning a profit of Rs 2 per share. While participating in arbitrage trades, traders must consider certain risks. The price difference is the result of a favourable exchange rate, which is constantly changing. Any significant change in the exchange rate while the trade is being carried out can result in losses. The transaction fees are another important factor to consider. If the transaction cost exceeds Rs 2 per share, the price gain will be lost. In India, how does arbitrage work? There is a scarcity of companies that are listed on both the Indian and foreign stock exchanges. However, India has two major exchanges—the BSE and the NSE—and the majority of companies are listed on both, creating an opportunity for arbitrage. Even if the price of a particular share differs between the NSE and the BSE, an arbitrage trade cannot be conducted. On the same day, traders are not permitted to buy and sell the same stock on different exchanges. For example, if you buy XYZ shares on the NSE today, you cannot sell them on the BSE the same day. So, how exactly does arbitrage work? One can sell shares that he or she already owns on one exchange and buy the same amount on another. For example, if you already own XYZ shares, you can sell them on the BSE and purchase them on the NSE. If you already own the stock, you are not engaging in an intraday trade on different exchanges, which is not permitted. Conclusion Because the price differential does not last long, automated systems are commonly used for arbitrage trading. Though spotting arbitrage opportunities is simple, profiting from them manually is extremely difficult. As we mentioned earlier, arbitrage trading needs the best online trading platform for you to instantly capitalise on any price difference between NSE and BSE. Zebull from Zebu is the fastest growing and best stock trading platform that comes with a mind-boggling number of features to help traders. Zebu is also becoming the fastest-growing brokerage firm in the country - please get in touch with us to know more about our products and services.

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A Beginner’s Guide To Hedging

Hedging is a beneficial investment strategy that every investor should know about. Hedging in the stock market provides portfolio safety, which is often as important as portfolio growth. Hedging is commonly discussed but not explained. But it's not a mystical term. Even a novice investor can benefit from learning about hedging. Before hedging When it comes to trading and investment, you need to choose the right one from a plethora of brokerage firms . One of the important factors you need to look for while executing hedging strategies is the lowest brokerage and someone with a fast-growing online brokerage background. Hedging Consider hedging as a type of insurance. By hedging, people protect themselves from the financial consequences of an unfavourable event. This does not stop all bad things from happening. However, if a negative event occurs, properly hedged, the damage is lessened. Hedging happens very universally. For example, buying a homeowner's insurance protects you against fires, burglaries, and other unanticipated events. Portfolio managers, investors, and organisations employ hedging to decrease risk. In the financial markets, hedging is not as straightforward as paying an annual insurance premium. Hedging investment risk involves strategically using financial instruments or market tactics to offset price risk. Traders hedge one investment by trading in another. To hedge, you must conduct counter-trades in securities having negative correlations. Of course, you must still pay for this type of insurance. For example, if you own XYZ stock, you can buy a put option to protect your investment from large declines. However, to buy an option, you must pay a premium. Less risk means less possible profit. So, hedging is a practice used to decrease prospective losses (and not maximise potential gain). If the investment you're hedging against is profitable, you've usually lowered your prospective profit. If the investment fails, your hedging will have decreased your loss. Hedging Explained Derivatives are commonly used in hedging strategies. One of the most common derivatives is options. In trading techniques involving derivatives, a loss in one investment is compensated by a gain in another. Assume you hold Tata motors stock. You believe in the company's long-term success, but you are concerned about recent losses. Put options let you protect yourself against a decline in CTC by selling it at a predetermined strike price. This is called a married put. If your stock price falls below the strike price, the gains from the put option reduce your losses. Hedging Drawbacks Every hedging approach has a cost. So, before you utilise hedging, consider whether the possible benefits outweigh the costs. Hedging is used to safeguard against losses, not to create money. The cost of hedging, whether it's an option or lost earnings from a futures contract, is unavoidable. While hedging is similar to insurance, insurance is more precise. With insurance, you are fully paid. Portfolio hedging isn't exact. Things can get unpredictable. The perfect hedge is a goal that risk managers strive for but rarely accomplish. Hedging and You Most investors will never trade a derivative. In fact, most long-term investors overlook short-term volatility. Hedging has little value for these investors because they let their investments expand with the market. So why hedge? In order to understand how it works, you should hedge your own portfolio. Many large corporations and financial funds will hedge their protfolio. Examples of hedges include oil companies. For example, an international mutual fund may protect against currency swings. Understand and assess these investments with a rudimentary understanding of hedging. Forward Hedge Example A wheat farmer and the wheat futures market are two examples of hedging. The farmer sows in the spring and harvests in the fall. In the interim, the farmer faces the danger of decreased wheat prices in the fall. While the farmer wants to maximise his harvest's profit, he does not want to bet on wheat's price. At the present price of $40 per bushel, he can sell a three-month futures contract. It's called a forward hedge. After three months, the farmer is ready to harvest and sell his wheat at market price. It is now only $32 per bushel. They buy wheat for that price. Simultaneously, he buys back his short futures contract for $32, netting $8. His wheat sells for $32 + $8 hedging profit = $40. When he planted his crop, he locked in the $40 price. Assume now that wheat is $44 a bushel. Sells his wheat at market price and buys back his short futures for $4. His net profit is $40 ($44 - $4). Both his losses and gains are reduced. The Verdict Investing involves a certain amount of risk. A fundamental understanding of hedging methods can help any investor understand how corporations and investors protect themselves. Whether or not you decide to start using complex derivatives, learning about hedging will improve your market knowledge and make you a better investor. At Zebu, we are one of the best brokerage firms in the country. We provide one of the lowest brokerages and are becoming one of the most sought-after online brokerages in India. Please get in touch with us to know more about our services and products.