An Overview of Volume vs. Open Interest
Volume and open interest are two of the most important technical metrics for understanding options and the broader market. The amount of contracts exchanged in a given period is referred to as "volume," whereas "open interest" refers to the number of contracts that are active, or not settled. We'll look at these two variables and give you some pointers on how to utilise them to better understand trade activity in the derivatives markets. But before we get into that, there is one thing you will require: the best Indian trading platform with a wide range of features. With Zebu, one of the best stock brokers in the country, your online stock trading journey will be drastically enhanced. Volume In the stock market, volume refers to the number of times shares are traded between buyers and sellers. The volume metric for options markets gives the number of options contracts bought and sold in a given trading day, as well as the degree of activity for a specific contract. Every transaction counts against the daily volume, whether it's an opening or closing transaction. The higher the volume, the more people are concerned about security. Volume is often used by investors to determine the strength of a price movement. More volume also suggests that the contract has more liquidity; this is advantageous in short-term trading because it means that there are more buyers and sellers in the market. Assume that the volume in call option ABC with a strike price of Rs 1000 and a three-week expiration date did not trade any contracts on a given day. As a result, the trade volume is zero. An investor buys 15 call option contracts the next session, and there are no other trades that day, thus the volume is now 15 contracts. The volume and open interest measurements reveal the amount of buying and selling that supports a prospective price change. In technical analysis, however, it is also necessary to determine whether the open interest is in calls or puts, as well as whether the contracts are being purchased or sold. Open Interest The quantity of options or futures contracts owned by active traders and investors is known as open interest. These positions have been created, but they haven't been filled, expired, or exercised yet. When buyers and sellers (or writers) of contracts close off more positions than were opened that day, open interest declines. A trader must take an offsetting position or exercise their option to close out a position. When investors and traders open additional new long positions or sellers take on new short positions in an amount bigger than the number of contracts that were closed that day, open interest rises once more. Assume that the open interest in the ABC call option is 0 for example. The next day, an investor opens a new position by purchasing 10 option contracts. The number of people who have expressed interest in this particular call option has now reached ten. Five contracts were closed the next day, ten were opened, and open interest grew by five to 15. Open interest, along with other variables, is used by technical analysts to determine the strength of a market trend. Increased open interest signals the entry of new traders into the market and can be used to corroborate a current market trend. The current trend may be deteriorating as open interest declines, indicating that traders are closing their positions. Particular Points to Consider We've listed a few situations that include the volume and open interest indicators, as well as some possible interpretations. Rising prices during an uptrend, combined with rising open interest, can indicate that new money is entering the market (reflecting new positions). If long positions are fueling the growth in open interest, this might be an indication of a bullish mood. If, on the other hand, open interest falls while prices rise during an advance, this could imply that money is leaving the market, which is a bearish indicator. If, on the other hand, open interest falls while prices rise during an advance, this could imply that money is leaving the market, which is a bearish indicator. Prices falling in a downtrend while open interest rises could indicate that new money is entering the market on the short side. This scenario is negative since it is consistent with a continuous downtrend. However, falling prices in a downtrend with declining open interest may imply that holders are being compelled to liquidate their positions, which is a bearish indicator. If open interest is high as prices are falling sharply during a market peak, it could be a bearish indicator if those who bought near the top are suddenly losing money; this could also create a panic selling scenario. Option Chain And Its Working An option chain is a table that lists all of the available options for a certain security. An option chain displays all of the published calls and puts for a given expiry date, organised by characteristics such as strike price, expiration date, volume, and pricing. How much open interest and volume should an option have? In general, a high volume and open interest both indicate a liquid market with a large number of buyers and sellers for a specific option. Market mood can also be confirmed by changes in open interest and volume. A rising price with increasing volume and open interest, for example, indicates a robust market, whereas a rising price with declining volume and open interest indicates a weak market. When the Volume Exceeds the Open Interest, What Does It Mean? If an option has a high volume but a low open interest, it has a limited secondary market, which means it may have low liquidity. A trader trying to sell that option might have trouble finding a buyer, or they might face a wider bid-ask spread than usual. What Does a High Open Interest Indicator Indicate? A huge number of traders have taken active positions in an options or futures contract with a high open interest. If open interest rises over time, it indicates that new traders are taking positions in the market and that money is flowing in. When open interest decreases over time, it indicates that traders are beginning to close positions.